Stereotypes about Ethnicity and Gender and their Consequences in Educational and Occupational Domain within and across Countries
In the 21st century, the reduction of social inequalities remains a challenge in Germany and other countries around the world. Two major dimensions of diversity that are related to social inequalities are ethnicity and gender. First, international migration is on a high and further increasing (International Organization of Migration, 2022) and Western European countries are becoming more and more ethnically and culturally heterogeneous. The educational and societal integration of immigrants is a persisting challenge (e.g., Deaux & Verkuyten, 2014). Second, the unequal distribution of women and men in different educational and occupational domains limits the potential of countless individuals as well as societies and economies as a whole (e.g., World Economic Forum, 2021). These challenges have been recognized for example by the United Nations, who addressed the reduction of economic and educational inequalities related to gender and ethnicity in three of their 17 Sustainable Development Goals (United Nations, 2015). The present Habilitation Thesis contributes to research on these inequalities from a social-psychological perspective with a focus on stereotypes and their consequences. In two research lines encompassing in total 10 manuscripts published in international peer-reviewed journals, widespread stereotypes about gender and ethnicity are described and their consequences are investigated for the educational and occupational domain. The manuscripts combine cross-sectional and longitudinal, as well as experimental and cross-national methods to investigate how stereotypes influence social identities and behavior in intergroup contexts. The research adds to current debates about how to reduce group-related inequalities and to enable people to fulfill their individual potential irrespective of their gender and ethnicity.