Prof. Dr. Robert Gaschler

Robert Gaschler Foto: Hardy Welsch

E-Mail: robert.gaschler

oder Lehre-AllgPs-LME

Telefon: +49 2331 987-2554

Sprechzeiten: nach Vereinbarung

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  • since April 2015: Professor for Experimental Psychology – Learning, Motivation, Emotion, at FernUniversität in Hagen
  • 2012 – 2015: Assistant Professor for Experimental Psychology – Learning, Motivation, Emotion at Universität Koblenz-Landau (Campus Landau)
  • 2009: Dr. rer. nat. in Psychology at Humboldt-Universität, Berlin based on International Max Planck Research School on The Life Course: Evolutionary and Ontogenetic Dynamics (LIFE)
  • 2005 – 2012: Researcher and lecturer at chair of Experimental Psychology Humboldt-Universität, Berlin (Prof. Peter A. Frensch & Prof. Torsten Schubert)
  • 2004 – 2008: Editorial assistant for Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung; organising committee of International Congress of Psychology; executive board and office of student-centered initiative on applying psychology to protection of environment Initiative Psychologie im Umweltschutz
  • 1998 – 2003: Studied psychology at Humboldt-Universität, Berlin

University boards at FernUniversität


  • Sequence learning & dual-tasking: DFG-Project of Hilde Haider & Robert Gaschler Prediction-based mechanisms of separation of representations in sequential actions in multitasking in DFG priority program SPP 1772 Multitasking]
  • Psychology for protection of environment: Interdisciplinary project MAXFAB on energy-flexible production.
  • Didactics of psychology: For instance, on teaching about learning and forgetting.
  • Science studies: For instance on perception of data graphs


Please contact me to get a copy of a publication vial E-Mail

List of publications

More information

Enders, N., Gaschler, R., & Kubik, V. (2021). Online quizzes with closed questions in formal assessment: How elaborate feedback can promote successful learning. Psychology Learning and Teaching Doi: 10.1177/1475725720971205

Münchhalfen, P. & Gaschler, R. (2021). Attention distribution of current Key Investor Documents: Standardization as a long-term goal of the PRIIPS regulation. Journal of Consumer Policy.

Reimann, D., Blech, C., Ram, N., & Gaschler, R. (2021). Visual model fit estimation in scatterplots: Influence of amount and decentering of noise. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. Doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2021.3051853

Röttger, E., Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., & Haider, H. (2021). Why does dual-tasking hamper implicit sequence learning? Journal of Cognition , 4(1): 1, pp. 1–22. DOI:

Tymofiyeva, O., & Gaschler, R. (2021) Training-induced neural plasticity in youth: A systematic review of structural and functional MRI studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. e14:497245. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.497245 PDF:

Blech, C., Gaschler, R., & Bilalić, M. (2020). Why do people fail to see simple solutions? Using think-aloud protocols to uncover the mechanism behind the Einstellung (mental set) effect, Thinking & Reasoning, 26(4), 552-580. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2019.1685001

Conci, A., Bilalic, M., & Gaschler, R. (2020). Can you see what I hear? Detecting changes in multimodal setting. Experimental Psychology. 67, 186-193 doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000487

Mattes, A., Tavera, F., Ophey, A., Roheger, M., Gaschler, R., & Haider, H. (2020). Parallel and serial task processing in the PRP-Paradigm: A drift diffusion model approach. Psychological Research. doi: 10.1007/s00426-020-01337-w

Reimann, D., Blech, C., & Gaschler, R. (2020) Visual model fit estimation in scatterplots and distribution of attention: Influence of slope and noise level. Experimental Psychology, 67(5), 292–302. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000499

Schürmann, L., Gaschler, R. & Quaiser-Pohl, C. (2020). Motivation theory in the school context: Differences in preservice and practicing teachers' experience, opinion, and knowledge. European Journal of Psychology of Educationdoi: 10.1007/s10212-020-00496-z

Ull, C., Weckwerth, C., Schildhauer, T. A., Hamsen, U., Gaschler, R., & Waydhas, C. & Jansen, O. (2020): First experiences of communication with mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit using eye-tracking technology. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, doi: 10.1080/17483107.2020.1821106

Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., Schnotz, W., & Wagner, I. (2020). Regulating distance to the screen while engaging in difficult tasks. Frontline Learning Research, 8(6), 59-76. doi: 10.14786/flr.v8i6.663 PDF:

Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., Kneschke, A., Radler, S., Gausmann, M., Duttine, C., & Haider, H. (2020). Origami folding: Taxing resources necessary for the acquisition of sequential skills. PLoS ONE, 15(10), e0240226. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240226

Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., Nöhring, D.O., Röttger, E., Haider, H. (2020). Sequential modulation of across-task congruency in the serial reaction time task. Acta Psychologica, 205, 205, 103043. doi: j.actpsy.2020.103043

Zhao, F., Schnotz, W., Wagner, I., & Gaschler, R. (2020). Texts and pictures serve different functions in conjoint mental model construction and adaptation. Memory & Cognition, 48, 69-82. doi:10.3758/s13421-019-00962-0

Gaschler, R., Zhao, F., Röttger, E., Panzer, S., & Haider, H. (2019). More than hitting the correct key quickly - Spatial variability in touch screen response location under multitasking in the Serial Reaction Time Task. Experimental Psychology, 66(3), 207–220. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000446

Gaschler, R., Schuck, N. W., Reverberi, C., Frensch, P. A., & Wenke, D. (2019). Incidental covariation learning leading to strategy change. PLOSone: 14(1): e0210597.

Kühnel, A., Gaschler, R., Frensch, P. A., Cohen, A., & Wenke, D. (2019). Lack of automatic vocal response learning while reading aloud – An implicit sequence learning study. Experimental Psychology, 66(4), 266–280. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000451

Landmann, H., Gaschler, R., & Rohmann, A. (2019). What is threatening about refugees? Identifying different types of threat and their association with emotional responses and attitudes towards refugee migration. European Journal of Social Psychology. 49 (7), 1401-1420. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2593

Röttger, E., Haider, H., Zhao, F., & Gaschler. R. (2019). Implicit sequence learning despite multitasking - the role of across-task predictability. Psychological Research, 83, 526–543. doi: 10.1007/s00426-017-0920-4

Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., Schneider, L., Thomaschke, R., Röttger, E., & Haider, H. (2019). Sequence knowledge on When and What supports dual-tasking. Journal of Cognition, 2(1): 18, 1–14. doi: 10.5334/joc.76

Blech, C., & Gaschler, R. (2018). Assessing students’ knowledge about learning and forgetting curves with a free production technique: Measures and implications for the development of learning aids. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 17(3), 308–322. doi: 10.1177/1475725718779684

Gaschler, R., Kemper, M., Zhao, F., Pumpe, I., Ruderisch, C.-B., Röttger, E., & Haider, H. (2018). Differential effects of cue-based and sequence knowledge-based predictability on multitasking performance. Acta Psychologica, 191, 76-86. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.09.004

Zhao, F., Gaschler, R., Travi, T., Imgrund, B., Kossak, V., Röttger, E., & Haider, H. (2018). Effects of overlap between consecutive words on speeded typing inform about representation of serial order within words. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 14, 124-136. doi: 10.5709/acp-0244-6 [pdf]

Blech, C. & Gaschler, R. (2017). Developing a drawing task to differentiate group average time course vs. dynamics in the individual. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 16(2), 212–231. doi: 10.1177/1475725717700516

Broeker, L., Kiesel, A., Aufschnaiter, S., Ewolds, H., Gaschler, R., Haider, H., Künzell, S., Raab, M., Röttger, E., Thomaschke, R., & Zhao, F. (2017). Why prediction matters in multitasking and how predictability can improve it. Frontiers in Psychology, 8: e2021.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02021 [pdf]

Kemper, M., & Gaschler, R. (2017). Self-generated or cue-induced — Different kinds of expectations to be considered. Frontiers in Psychology, 8: e53. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00053

Kemper, M., Gaschler, R., & Schubert, T. (2017). Stronger effects of self-generated than cue-induced expectations when verifying predictions in data graphs. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29(5), 626–641. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2017.1291644 [pdf]

Schwager, S., Gaschler, R., Rünger, D., & Frensch, P. A. (2017). Tied to expectations: Predicting features speeds processing even under adverse circumstances. Memory & Cognition. 45(4), 611–624. doi: 10.3758/s13421-016-0683-y

Steimke, R., Nomi, J. S., Calhoun, V. D., Stelzel, C., Paschke, L. M., Gaschler, R., Goschke, T., Walter, H., & Uddin, L. Q. (2017). Salience network dynamics underlying successful resistance of temptation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, nsx123, [pdf]

Wirth, M., & Gaschler, R. (2017). Challenging cognitive control by mirrored stimuli in working memory matching. Frontiers in Psychology, 8: e653. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00653 [pdf]

Godau, C., Vogelgesang, T., & Gaschler, R. (2016). Perception of bar graphs -- A biased impression? Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.036

Kemper, M., Gaschler, R., Schwager, S., & Schubert, T. (2016). The benefit of expecting no conflict - Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance. Acta Psychologica, 163, 135–141. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.11.008

Steimke, R., Stelzel, C., Gaschler, R., Rothkirch, M., Ludwig, V. U., Paschke, L. M., Trempler, I., Kathmann, N., Goschke, T., & Walter, H. (2016). Decomposing self-control: Individual differences in goal pursuit despite interfering aversion, temptation, and distraction. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: e382. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00382 [pdf]

Buckmann, M.*, Gaschler, R.*, Höfer, S., Loeben, D., Frensch, P. A., & Brock, O. (2015). Learning to explore the structure of kinematic objects in a virtual environment. Frontiers in Psychology. 6: e374. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00374 [*shared first authorship] [pdf]

Gaschler, R., Marewski, J. N., & Frensch, P. A. (2015). Once and for all – How people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 543-567. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.961933

Godau, C. & Gaschler, R. (2015). Wahrnehmung von Datengrafiken. Ein verzerrter Eindruck? In: H. Bredekamp & W. Schäffner (Hrsg.), pp. 79 – 85, Haare hören – Strukturen wissen – Räume agieren, Berichte aus dem Interdisziplinären Labor Bild Wissen Gestaltung. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld. [pdf]

Hansen, S. M., Haider, H., Eichler, A., Godau, C., Frensch, P. A., & Gaschler, R. (2015). Fostering formal commutativity knowledge with approximate arithmetic. PLoS ONE 10(11): e014255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142551 [pdf]

Martini, M., Sachse, P., Furtner, M., & Gaschler, R. (2015). Why should working memory be related to incidentally learned sequence structures? Cortex, 64, 407-410.
doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.05.016

Paschke, L. M.*, Walter, H.*, Steimke, R., Ludwig, V. U., Gaschler, R., Schubert, T., Stelzel, C. (2015). Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network. NeuroImage, 111, 549-561, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.047; * shared first authorship

Schuck, N. W., Gaschler, R., Wenke, D., Heinzle, J., Frensch, P. A., Haynes, J.-D., & Reverberi, C. (2015). Medial prefrontal cortex predicts internally driven strategy shifts. Neuron, 86(1), 331–340. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.03.015
[featured in Princeton Journal Watch]

Christophel, E., Gaschler, R., Schnotz, W. (2014). Teachers’ expertise in feedback application adapted to the phases of the learning process. Frontiers in Psychology. 5: e858. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00858

Gaschler, R., Marewski, J. N., Wenke, D., & Frensch, P. A. (2014). Transferring control demands across incidental learning tasks – Stronger sequence usage in serial reaction task after shortcut option in letter string checking. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: e1388. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01388

Gaschler, R., Progscha, J., Smallbone, K., Ram, N., & Bilalic, M. (2014). Playing off the curve –Testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 5:923. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00923

Gaschler, R.*, Schwager, S.*, Umbach, V. J., Frensch, P. A. , & Schubert, T. (2014). Expectation mismatch: Differences between self-generated and cue-induced expectations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 46, 139-157. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.06.009 [*shared first authorship].

Godau, C., Haider, H., Hansen, S., Schubert, T., & Gaschler, R. (2014). Spontaneously spotting and applying shortcuts in arithmetic – A primary school perspective on expertise. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: e556. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00556

Godau, C.*, Wirth, M.*, Hansen, S., Haider, H., & Gaschler, R. (2014). From marbles to numbers - Estimation influences looking patterns on arithmetic problems. Psychology, 5, 127-133. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.52020 [*shared first authorship]

Haider, H., Eichler, A., Hansen, S., Vaterrodt, B., Gaschler, R., Frensch, P. A. (2014). How we use what we learn in Math: An integrative account of the development of commutativity. Frontline Learning Research, 2(1), 1-21. doi:10.14786/flr.v2i1.37

Zhao, F., Schnotz, W., Wagner, I., & Gaschler, R. (2014). Eye tracking indicators of reading approaches in text-picture comprehension. Frontline Learning Research, 2(4), 46-66. doi: 10.14786/flr.v2i4.98

Boldt, A., Stürmer, B., Gaschler, R., Schacht, A., & Sommer, W. (2013). Get out of here, quick! Problems with transparent labels on glass doors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19, 241–253. doi: 10.1037/a0034079.

Gaschler, R., Vaterrodt, B., Frensch, P. A., Eichler A., & Haider, H. (2013). Spontaneous usage of different shortcuts based on the commutativity principle. PLoS ONE 8(9): e74972. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074972

Gaschler, R., Frensch, P. A., Cohen, A., & Wenke, D. (2012). Implicit sequence learning based on instructed task set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1389-1407. doi: 10.1037/a0028071

Gaschler, R., Katz, D., Grund, M., Frensch, P. A., & Brock, O. (2012). Intelligent object exploration. In: M. Inaki (Ed.), pp. 235-260, Human machine interaction. Intech. doi: 10.5772/25836

Gaschler, R., & Nattkemper, D. (2012). Instructed task demands and utilization of action effect anticipation. Frontiers in Psychology, 3: e578. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00578

Gaschler, R., & Wassermann, M. (2012). Was wir wissen, wie wir werten - zusätzliche Information über das neue EU Biolabel verändert Bewertung kaum. Umweltpsychologie, 16(2), 141-161.

Kemper, M., Umbach, V. J., Schwager, S., Gaschler, R., Frensch, P. A., & Stürmer, B. (2012). Stronger effects of self-generated vs. cue-induced expectations in event-related potentials. Frontiers in Psychology, 3: e562. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00562 [pdf]

Schuck, N. W., Gaschler, R., & Frensch P. A. (2012). Implicit learning of what comes when and where within a sequence: The time-course of acquiring serial position-item and item-item associations to represent serial order. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 8, 83-97. doi:10.2478/v10053-008-0106-0.

Schuck, N. W., Gaschler, R., Keisler, A., & Frensch P. A. (2012). Position–item associations play a role in the acquisition of order knowledge in an implicit serial reaction time task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 440-456, doi: 10.1037/a0025816

Schwager, S., Rünger, R., Gaschler, R., & Frensch, P. A. (2012). Data-driven sequence learning or search – what are the prerequisites for the generation of explicit sequence knowledge? Advances in CognitivePsychology, 8, 132-143. doi:10.2478/v10053-008-0110-4

Umbach, V. J., Schwager, S., Frensch, P. A., & Gaschler, R. (2012). Does explicit expectation really affect preparation? Frontiers in Psychology, 3: e378, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00378

Gaschler, R., Mata, J., Störmer, V., Kühnel, A., & Bilalic, M. (2010). Change detection for new food labels. Food Quality and Preference, 21, 140-147. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2009.08.013

Gaschler, R., & Frensch, P. A. (2009). When vaccinating against information reduction works and when it does not work. Psychological Studies, 54, 43-53. doi:10.1007/s12646-009-0006-5

Gaschler, R., & Frensch, P. A. (2009). Kognitivismus als humanwissenschaftliches bzw. anthropologisches Forschungsprogramm. In: E. Bohlken & C. Thies (Hrsg.), pp. 156 – 163, Handbuch Anthropologie. Der Mensch zwischen Natur, Kultur und Technik. Metzler Verlag.

Wenke, D., Gaschler, R., Nattkemper, D., & Frensch, P. A. (2009). Strategic influences on implementing instructions for future actions. Psychological Research, 73, 587-601. doi: 10.1007/s00426-009-0239-x

Gaschler, R., & Frensch, P. A. (2007). Is information reduction an item-specific or an item-general process?. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 218-228. doi: 10.1080/00207590701396526

Wenke, D., Gaschler, R., & Nattkemper, D. (2007). Instruction-induced feature binding. Psychological Research, 71, 92-106. doi: 10.1007/s00426-005-0038-y

Publications - special formats

More information

LinkHandbucheinträge erstellt für Dorsch - Lexikon der Psychologie (2013), Wirtz, M.A. (Hg.) zu folgenden Stichwörtern

Gaschler R., Katsarava M., Kubik V. (2021) Sensation and Perception. In: Zumbach J., Bernstein D., Narciss S., Marsico G. (eds) International Handbook of Psychology Learning and Teaching. Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Cham.

Stürmer, S. & Gaschler, R. (2020). Virtuelles Empirisches Praktikum im B.Sc.-Psychologie: Praxis und Empfehlungen der FernUniversität in Hagen. Psychologische Rundschau, 71, 312-314. Doi: 10.1026/0033-3042/a000496

Gaschler, R. (2019). Variieren. In S. Marguin, H. Rabe, W. Schäffner, & F. Schmidgall (Hrsg.), pp. 341-353, Experimentieren - Einblicke in Praktiken und Versuchsaufbauten zwischen Wissenschaft und Gestaltung, transcript Verlag, Bielefeld. doi: 10.14361/9783839446386 PDF

Gaschler, R. & Stürmer, S. (2018). Erfahren und Üben im Browserfenster – Interaktives Lernen im B.Sc. Psychologie an der Fernuniversität. In: M. Krämer, S. Preiser & K. Brusdeylins (Hrsg.). Psychologiedidaktik und Evaluation XII. pp 99-106, Shaker, Aachen Link

Martini, M., & Gaschler, R. (2018). Incidental Learning. In V. Zeigler-Hill, & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_682-1

Stürmer, S., Christ, O., Jonkmann, K., Josephs, I., Gaschler, R., Glöckner, A. Mokros, A., Rohmann, A. & Salewski, C. (2018). 10 Jahre universitäres Fernstudium in Psychologie an der FernUniversität in Hagen. Psychologische Rundschau, 69, 104-108.

Gaschler, R., & Ahmed, F. (2015). Modelle gebrauchen lernen. Erwägen Wissen Ethik, 26(3), 375-377.

Gaschler, R. & Schuck, N. W. (2015). Bitte drängeln, dann geht alles schön der Reihe nach – wie wir Reihenfolgen abspeichern und wiedergeben. InMind: 4

Godau, C. & Gaschler, R. (2015). Wahrnehmung von Datengrafiken. Ein verzerrter Eindruck? In: H. Bredekamp & W. Schäffner (Hrsg.), pp. 79 – 85, Haare hören – Strukturen wissen – Räume agieren, Berichte aus dem Interdisziplinären Labor Bild Wissen Gestaltung. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld. [pdf]

Gaschler, R., & Frensch, P. A. (2009). Kognitivismus als humanwissenschaftliches bzw. anthropologisches Forschungsprogramm. In: E. Bohlken & C. Thies (Hrsg.), pp. 156 – 163, Handbuch Anthropologie. Der Mensch zwischen Natur, Kultur und Technik. Metzler Verlag.

Allgemeine Psychologie: LME | 03.02.2021