An entire landfill mining with waste processing and recycling can be seen as an alternative to landfill aftercare as well as an option to avoid pollution and to recover huge areas by land recycling. To realise an entire landfill mining, economic profitable landfill mining and waste processing concepts have to be identified. Therefore, we develop an approach for assessing alternative landfill mining and waste processing concepts in comparison to landfill aftercare. Our approach consists of four steps. First, mapping type and quantity of material flows by activity analysis. Second, calculating total costs of landfill mining and waste processing concepts according to “the material flow based environmental cost accounting” introduced by Spengler (1998). Third, comparing the total concept costs with aftercare costs and finally, considering uncertainties by scenario and sensitivity analysis. On that basis, it is possible to develop a decision support model, which facilitates decision making in terms of the selection of profitable landfill mining and waste processing concepts and the identification of the most profitable alternative, either landfill mining or landfill aftercare.