Prospects for regulating the CO2 emissions from passenger cars within the European Union after 2023
Kieckhäfer, K.
Feld, V.
Jochem, P.
Wachter, K.
Spengler, T. S.
Walther, G.
Fichtner, W.
Referierte Zeitschriften
erschienen in:
Zeitschrift für Umweltpolitik und Umweltrecht, 38(4), pp. 425–450, 2015. [Link]

In the European Union, car manufacturers are required to reduce the average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars to 95 g CO2/km until the year 2021. After 2021, a new regulation will need to be established. With this paper, we attempt to contribute to the discussion on a new regulation by comprehensively evaluating alternatives to the currently applied emission standard. These alternatives comprise of different regulatory and market-based instruments as well as their combinations. We show that policies combining an emission/energy consumption standard with an upstream or midstream emission trading system are worth considering. These combinations provide a promising approach to allow greater flexibility for the car manufacturers and to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of the regulation, whilst at the same time respecting political objectives and consumers’ interests.