Stereotype Threat

The junior research group "Stereotype Threat" is part of the research center CATALPA.

The junior research group "Stereotype Threat" focuses on how, for example, gender, age and migration background and "otherness" as well as the associated stereotypes influence academic success and social inclusion. The researchers are looking in particular at digital university teaching.

Goals and research questions

Increasing Non-Traditional Students’ Performance and Social Belonging in Distance Education: A Stereotype Threat Perspective

Digital distance education offers unique academic opportunities for non-traditional students (e.g., students who have a migration background, are older, or working full-time). However, digital learning contexts can also pose additional challenges for these students, as memberships in social groups (e.g., gender, age, ethnicity) are particularly salient. The project investigates the influence of stereotypes (generalized beliefs about characteristics of social groups) about non-traditional students and their influence on the academic success and sense of belonging of these students.

Social-psychological research has shown that negative ability-related stereotypes can reduce test performance, learning, academic success and social belonging of negatively stereotyped student groups. Thus, stereotypes can hinder these students from fulfilling their intellectual potential, an effect called stereotype threat. The project investigates stereotype threat for non-traditional students in digital distance education. Furthermore, we will test two interventions designed to support non-traditional students’ sense of belonging at university. The project aims at developing adaptive interventions in order to reduce stereotype threat for non-traditional students in digital distance education.

Another project of the junior research group

"Do I belong? - How Negative Stereotypes Influence the Social Relationships of Adolescents with a Migrant Background in the School Context" (funded by the German Research Foundation: FR 4503/1-1)

more about the project

  • Dr. Laura Froehlich

    • Nathalie Bick (doctoral researcher)
    • Melanie Mroz (research assistant)
  • April 2021 through June 2024

  • 2023


    • Froehlich, L., Sassenberg, K., Jonkmann, K., Scheiter, K., & Stürmer, S. (2023). Student diversity and e–exam acceptance in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 1–15.



    • Bick, N., Froehlich, L., Friehs, M., Kotzur, P. F., & Landmann, H. (2022). Social evaluation at a distance - facets of stereotype content about student groups in higher distance education. International Review of Social Psychology.
    • Dorrough, A. R., Froehlich, L., & Eriksson, K. (2022). Cooperation in the cross-national context. Current Opinion in Psychology, 44, 281–285.
    • Froehlich, L., Brokjøb, L. G., Nikitin, J., & Martiny, S. E. (2022). Integration or isolation: Social identity threat relates to immigrant students’ sense of belonging and social approach motivation in the academic context. Journal of Social Issues.
    • Froehlich, L., Hattesohl, D. B., Cotler, J., Jason, L. A., Scheibenbogen, C., & Behrends, U. (2022). Causal attributions and perceived stigma for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Health Psychology, 27(10), 2291–2304.
    • Froehlich, L., Mok, S. Y., Martiny, S. E., & Deaux, K. (2022). Stereotype threat-effects for turkish-origin migrants in germany: Taking stock of cumulative research evidence. European Educational Research Journal, 3(1), 147490411880753.
    • Froehlich, L., Tsukamoto, S., Morinaga, Y., Sakata, K., Uchida, Y., Keller, M. M., Stürmer, S., Martiny, S. E., & Trommsdorff, G. (2022). Gender stereotypes and expected backlash for female STEM students in germany and japan. Frontiers in Education, 6.

    Chapters in Books

    • Froehlich, L., Essien, I., & Martiny, S. E. (2022). Stereotype in Kindergärten und Kindertagesstätten: Theoretische Grundlagen, empirische Evidenz und Interventionsansätze für pädagogisches Fachpersonal. In S. Glock (Ed.),Stereotype in der Schule II. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH; Springer VS.



    • Bosson, J. K., Jurek, P., Vandello, J. A., Kosakowska-Berezecka, N., Olech, M., Besta, T., Bender, M., Hoorens, V., Becker, M., Timur Sevincer, A., Best, D. L., Safdar, S., Włodarczyk, A., Zawisza, M., Żadkowska, M., Abuhamdeh, S., Badu Agyemang, C., Akbaş, G., Albayrak-Aydemir, N., … Žukauskienė, R. (2021). Psychometric properties and correlates of precarious manhood beliefs in 62 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 52(3), 231–258.
    • Dorrough, A. R., Olsson, M. I. T., Froehlich, L., Glöckner, A., & Martiny, S. E. (2021). Does she compensate the victim while he punishes the perpetrator? No gender differences in anonymous economic games across 11 nations. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 34(2), 261–274.
    • Froehlich, L., Dorrough, A. R., Glöckner, A., & Stürmer, S. (2021). Similarity predicts cross-national social preferences. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12(8), 1486–1498.
    • Froehlich, L., Hattesohl, D. B. R., Jason, L. A., Scheibenbogen, C., Behrends, U., & Thoma, M. (2021). Medical care situation of people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome in germany. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(7).
    • Granderath, J. S., Martin, A., & Froehlich, L. (2021). The effect of participation in adult education on life satisfaction of immigrants and natives: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 22(7), 3043–3067.
    • Granderath, J. S., Martin, A., Froehlich, L., & Stürmer, S. (2021). Identification through education: Exploring the effects of adult education on national and ethnic identification of people with migration background in germany. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 198–212.
    • Mok, S. Y., Bakaç, C., & Froehlich, L. (2021). “My family’s goals are also my goals”: The relationship between collectivism, distal utility value, and learning and career goals of international university students in germany. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 21(2), 355–378.
    • Olsson, M. I. T., Froehlich, L., Dorrough, A. R., & Martiny, S. E. (2021). The hers and his of prosociality across 10 countries. British Journal of Social Psychology, 60(4), 1330–1349.



    • Froehlich, L., Martiny, S. E., & Deaux, K. (2020). A longitudinal investigation of the ethnic and national identities of children with migration background in germany. Social Psychology, 51(2), 91–105.
    • Froehlich, L., Olsson, M. I. T., Dorrough, A. R., & Martiny, S. E. (2020). Gender at work across nations: Men and women working in male–dominated and female–dominated occupations are differentially associated with agency and communion. Journal of Social Issues, 76(3), 484–511.
    • Martiny, S. E., Froehlich, L., Soltanpanah, J., & Haugen, M. S. (2020). Young immigrants in norway: The role of national and ethnic identity in immigrants’ integration. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 61(2), 312–324.





    • Mok, S. Y., Martiny, S. E., Gleibs, I. H., Deaux, K., & Froehlich, L. (2017). The interaction of vertical collectivism and stereotype activation on the performance of turkish-origin high school students. Learning and Individual Differences, 56, 76–84.